WASHINGTON — The Senate yesterday voted down an amendment to financial regulatory reform legislation that would have imposed a blanket prohibition on federal assistance to states and localities in financial trouble for reasons other than a natural ­disaster.

Proposed by Republican Sen. Judd Gregg of New Hampshire, the amendment only garnered 47 of the 60 votes it needed to pass. It was designed to insulate taxpayers from having to pay for potential bailouts to states like California that have been “profligate” and have spent beyond their means, Gregg said.

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