WASHINGTON — California and Florida are the biggest winners of high-speed rail grants, securing $1.7 billion out of a total of $2.5 billion to help close ­funding gaps for ambitious rail projects that have already received large federal grants.

The awards will be formally announced Thursday by federal officials. The money comes from the federal high-speed intercity passenger rail program, which received $2.5 billion from Congress in fiscal 2010 to dole out to projects across the country.

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