Forecasters see moderate growth ahead for the U.S. economy, with real gross domestic product growing at an annual rate of 2.3% in the second half, 2.5% early next year, and 2.9% in the last six months of 2011, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia’s December Livingston ­survey.

The estimates released Thursday were lower than those issued six months ago, when forecaster expected 3.3% growth in this half year and 3% next year. Forecasts for unemployment rates were also revised upward, with projections of 9.6% in December and 9.4% in June 2011.

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