SAN FRANCISCO — California Gov. Jerry Brown unveiled a ballot initiative this week to temporarily raise the top income tax rate on individuals to as much as 12.3% — making it the highest in the country — as part of an effort to raise nearly $7 billion annually.

The governor’s tax plan to help fund education and public safety would also ask voters in November to approve a half-cent increase in the statewide sales tax, which would bump it to 7.75%.

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